Mongchon Fortress is located in the Olympic Park at Bangi-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul.
This fortress is surrounded by Pungnap Fortress (Historical Relic No. 11) and Achasan Fortress (Historical Relic No. 234) to the north, Iseongsan Fortress and Namhansan Fortress (Historical Relic No. 57) to the east, and the Seokchon-dong, Garak-dong Ancient Tombs etc. to the west making it a very advantageous position for defense against external forces.
Mongchon Fortress is part of the Han River tributary system and its walls were built by clay using a natural hill centering on a small mountain with altitude 44.8m. Especially, on the northern wall platform a wooden fence was constructed, and on the fortress exterior a deep wide channel was formed. The feature of this fortress is that it is positioned to defend against enemies coming from the northern direction. Along with the houses, dokmudeom (coffins made with large pots), storage pits etc. various relics including Baekje earthenware, weapons, fishing hooks, stone mortars etc. were excavated forming precious research materials for the Baekje era.
Mongchon Museum of History
Mongchon Museum of History is located on the way to Mongchon Fortress from the Northern Gate 2 of Olympic Park, and is a place where the best-known relics & remains of the Baekje culture can be seen at one time. As most people would know, Mongchon Fortress was one of the major fortresses of Baekje during the Hanseong Era, and through 6 rounds of thorough investigations from 1983 to 1989, a vast number of relics including the hut site, storage pits and earthenware were discovered.
The place containing the traces of our ancestors uncovered during that time is Mongchon Museum of History. On entrance, the eyes are enticed by the hut site of the Hanseong Baekje Era which dominated the Han River areas including Amsa-dong, Myeongil-dong, Yeaksam-dong etc. as well as the models of ancient tombs, and when automatically moving in pursuit of the scent of Baekje flowing from somewhere, it leads to the Mongchon Fortress relics exhibit with Mongcon Fortress standing firm in the center and the surrounding earthenware, whetstones, net sinkers etc. revealing the images of life in those times.
Moreover, although just models, the stone animals excavated in Gongju & Buyeo, as well as the Baekje relics that went to Japan such as the various ornaments, gilt bronze shoes, Statue of Thinking Buddha , Seven-Prong Sward etc, can be observed everywhere. The Baekje Hut Site, which has preserved as is the ancient housing site of the Baekje Era discovered in Mongchon Fortress, has been formed taking the hut site as an example from the structure exterior, and as entrance is made there is a feeling of being back in the prehistoric age.
Originally, this bridge was called Mongchon Bridge, and Mongchon means "Ggum-maeul [Village of Dreams]" in Korean.
"Gommal" is the ancient word for Ggum-maeul, and in March 1986, the Seoul City Geographical Naming Committee changed its name from Mongchon Bridge to "Gommal Bridge" to restore the pure and beautiful Korean language.
The Wooden Fence of Mongchon Fortress
The wooden fences of Korea were used as a method of defense against the enemy from the early iron age to the Joseon Dynasty. There are fortresses made entirely of wooden fences, and there are fortresses where wooden fences are built on top of the clay wall like in Mongchon Fortress.
According to the results of investigations by the Seoul National University Museum between 1983~1988, the position of the wooden fences in Mongchon Fortress was confirmed, and it is thought that large wooden columns were erected with gaps of 1.8 meters in holes with depths of 30~90 centimeters and diameters of 30~40 centimeters in the base rock, and between the columns, reinforcement columns were erected. The height of the wooden fence is not known precisely, but it is estimated to have been 2m or higher. This wooden fence was restored in accordance with the estimated original position of the discovered & investigated wooden columns.
After a 6-stage precision excavation process, 4 above-ground structure sites and 12 dugout hut sites were discovered. These dugout hut sites are located in high areas with altitudes of 25m above sea level. They can be divided into 3 types depending on the level form and depth.
First is the type made by digging the hill slope into an L shape, and these are dominant in terms of numbers. Second is the dugout with the level surface in the shape of a quadrangle, and at the time this was made by digging about 1m from the ground surface. From these dugout huts horse bones and iron weapons were mainly excavated, so it is thought that these were used not as general households but for special military purposes. The third dugout hut was in a level form of a hexagonal structure with the entrance installed where the short sides of the hexagon meet (southeastern side). The length of the long wall is about 6m and the short wall about 4m. There are 10 holes for pillars on the long wall, and the diameter of each hole is about 50cm. There are 4~5 holes for pillars also on the short wall, and the standard diameter of these holes is about 20~30cm, but they tend to be larger in the corners as they have to support more weight. There are no separate facilities within the dugout huts, but at the northeastern side corner, an ondol shaped stove stand out. Of the 4 dugout huts exhibited here, number 1 is the second quadrangle type, but as the number 2 hut was constructed after its abandonment, many areas have been bent and withered away. The number 3 & 4 huts are the typical hexagonal types, and after the abandonment of the number 3 hut, it was moved slightly to the east, and the number 4 hut was constructed.
North hill of Mongchon Fortress
530-year old tree representing Seoul City (ginkgo tree)
Near the outdoor sculpture yard
430-year old tree representing Songpa-gu (zelkova)
|The Person in Charge||Park Management TeamKim Jae Man02)410-1323|